Grant MNiSW (N N525 461236)


Title: The effect of remediation on the mobility of Pb, Zn, Cd, and As in silos polluted by Pb-Zn mining and smelting in Upper Silesia
Duration: 2009-2012
Principal Investigator: Tomasz Bajda
Funding agency: Ministry of Science and Higher Education (Poland)
Project ID: N N525 461236


The aim of the project was to determine the form of lead, zinc, cadmium and arsenic in soils degraded by mining and zinc-lead metallurgy in Upper Silesia and to assess the determine of reclamation treatments on their mobility. Soil samples collected and used in experiments from the vicinity of Zakład Górniczo-Hutniczy „Bolesław” in Bukowno are samples of contaminated soils in which zinc, cadmium and lead are found, which are easily accessible to living organisms.
The results of the leaching and phytotoxicity tests allowed to determine the effectiveness of mineral sorbents and phosphate fertilizers used in the immobilization of metals in soils. Based on the ranking, it was determined that the highest effectiveness of the reduction of leachable and phytoability contents of Zn, Pb and Cd in soils showed: ammonium phosphate, Polifoska 15 and bog iron ore. The experiment of the influence of temperature on the effectiveness of immobilization of metals in soils proved that Zn, Pb and Cd leaching in winter conditions will not increase both in the soils treated with bog iron ore and phosphate ammonium. The conducted column test showed greater efficiency in the reduction of metals leaching from soils in the use of bog iron ore additives than ammonium phosphate. The performed experiments made it possible to choose optimal conditions for Zn, Pb and Cd immobilization in the studied soils. Two solutions are proposed. The first of these assumes the use of ammonium phosphate additions, while using As(V) phytoextraction. In this way, a high reduction in the leaching and phytoability of Zn, Pb and Cd will be ensured, and the treatment of soils from toxic arsenates will be possible. The second solution involves the use of bog iron ore additives in the process of immobilization of metals in soils. The tests confirmed that this sorbent is characterized by high the efficiency of reducing the leachability and phytoability of Zn, Pb and Cd. For applying this additive the results of the column experiment speak, in which its high efficiency is revealedlimiting the mobility of tested metals.

Most important publications:

  • Figuła A., Bajda T., Manecki M., Kleszczewska A. 2009. Application of modern glass fertilizers in Phosphate Induced Metal Stabilization (PIMS). Xth International geological conference of Ph.D. students and young scientists. Herl’any, 2nd-4th April 2009. In: Mineralia Slovaca, 41(3), Geovestník s. 356.
  • Figuła A., Bajda T. 2010. Formation of brom-pyromorphite as the effect of lead and phosphates sorption on surfactant-modified smectite. IMA2010: 20th general meeting of the International Mineralogical Association : 21–27 August, 2010 Budapest, Hungary. In: Acta Mineralogica-Petrographica: abstract series, vol. 6, s. 399.
  • Bajda T., Manecki M. 2010. Dissolution of lead arsenate promoted by organic acids. The 1st International Conference: „Contemporary Problems of Geochemistry”. Kielce, Poland, September 27–30, 2010. In: Mineralogia – Special Papers, 36: 25-26.
  • Bajda T., Marchlewski T., Manecki M. 2011. Pyromorphite formation from montmorillonite adsorbed lead. Mineralogia, 42 (2-3), 3-9.
  • Figuła A., Janicka U., Bajda T. 2011. Formation of brom-pyromorphite on surfactant-modified smectite. 11th international conference of young geologists. Svätý Jur, Slovak Republic, 29. April –1. May 2010. In: Mineralia Slovaca 43(1), Geovestník: 61.
  • Orligóra W., Kwaśniak-Kominek M., Manecki M., Bajda T. 2011. Thermodynamic stability of hydroxylpyromorphite Pb5(PO4)3OH at 5, 25, 45, and 65°C. VIII Meeting of the Mineralogical Society of Poland & XVIII Meeting of the Petrology Group of the Mineralogical Society of Poland. Bukowina Tatrzańska, Poland, 21-23 October 2011. In: Miner. – Spec. Paper., 38: 155.
  • Rzepka P., Bajda T., Manecki M. 2011. Adsorption of phosphate by clinoptilolite exchanged with Pb. VIII Meeting of the Mineralogical Society of Poland & XVIII Meeting of the Petrology Group of the Mineralogical Society of Poland. Bukowina Tatrzańska, Poland, 21-23 October 2011. In: Miner. – Spec. Paper., 38: 163.
  • Szrek D., Bajda T., Manecki M. 2011. A comparative study of the most effective amendment for Pb, Zn and Cd immobilization in contaminated soils from Upper Silesia, Poland. Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part A. 46: 1491-1502.
  • Zgłobica T., Bajda T., Manecki M., Szrek D. 2011. Immobilization of Zn, Pb and Cd in soils by phosphate fertilizers. 11th international conference of young geologists. Svätý Jur, Slovak Republic, 29. April – 1. May 2010. In: Mineralia Slovaca 43(1), Geovestník: 77-78.
  • Janicka, U., Bajda, T., Manecki, M. (2012) Synthesis and solubility of brompyromorphite Pb5(PO4)3Br. Mineralogia, 43, 129-135.
  • Matusik, J., Bajda, T., Manecki, M. (2012) Aqueous cadmium removal by hydroxylapatite and fluoroapatite. Geology, Geophysics & Environment, 38, 427-438.

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